Salmonella: From Drug Resistant To Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR)

Most cases of salmonella are treated with supportive care, as drugs are not effective.

Written by Dr. Sean Lin, Jack Guan and The Epoch Times

(emphasis ours),

Salmonella is the most common food poisoning cause.

It can infect many hosts and survive anywhere from animal furs to lettuce leaves. A rising trend in drug-resistant Salmonella (

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As a result of a review in the journal Foods, it is clear that improved methods for detection and prevention are needed.

Salmonella Essentials

As a

key cause

Diarrhoeal diseases and their causes

Typhoid fever

Salmonella strains cause 1.2 million illnesses each year. The gram-negative bacteria is known to cause stomach pains and diarrhea in people who eat food that's 'gone bad'.

Salmonella is a bacterium that has over 2,500 different variants. It causes hospitalization of over 25,000 people and the death of 400+ people each year, in the United States.

Salmonella can also cause nausea, vomiting and fever. A Salmonella infection can also cause a headache.

Salmonella Typhi

Typhoid can be caused by a number of factors. Typhoid also causes a skin rash, muscle weakness and a high fever of 103-104 F (39-40 C).

The wide variety of hosts and environments where they can live makes it difficult to combat Salmonella bacteria.

The bacteria are almost everywhere, as they live in birds, reptiles and amphibians. They can also be found in most household pets. Salmonella can also survive in fresh, frozen and processed foods. This is why outbreaks of Salmonella are reported in a variety of products, from frozen salami to "raw frozen breaded".

stuffed chicken products


The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a long list of diseases and illnesses.

List of Salmonella outbreaks

Starting in 2006. Symptoms usually appear between six hours and six days following infection, lasting anywhere from four to seven days. People may experience symptoms for a long period, lasting several weeks, or even no symptoms.

The diagnosis of salmonella is typically performed in the laboratory using individual samples from blood, tissue or fluids. It could take between one day and five depending on the sample.

Treatment for salmonella is often supportive, rather than targeted, because most drugs don't do much.

It is important to replenish fluids, as diarrhea can dehydrate your body. Rest is also recommended.

Salmonella infections can be treated with antibiotics like ciprofloxacin azithromycin and ceftriaxone. Salmonella infections caused by drug-resistant strains are more severe and can lead to higher hospitalization rates.

Multidrug-Resistant salmonella: What do we do?

Salmonella treatments are often only supportive due to the rise in drug-resistant strains. You can take antibiotics or anti-diarrhea medication prescribed by your doctor, but there are risks involved. One of the risks is that diarrhea medications can prolong symptoms as the infection progresses. Antibiotics may also not be recommended, since they can cause harm and are often unnecessary.

Salmonella is usually found in the intestines, and doesn't usually reach the bloodstream. The only time antibiotics are used is to treat diseases that affect the bloodstream. This means they have no real purpose. In addition, the overuse of antibiotics is responsible for an increase in drug resistant Salmonella.

According to Foods Review, at least 100,000 infections are caused by antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the United States, including strains resistant to ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin. Salmonella strains resistant multiple antibiotics such as ampicillin, streptomycin sulfisoxazole and tetracycline have been involved in Salmonella outbreaks.

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